Types of Literacy Part :2

•-Adult Educationin India: National and International Perspectives.
Types of Literacy Part :2

• Objectives :-

At the end of Reading this Study Note the learners will be able to:

• Identify three categories of literacy namely :

• Social Concerns (Health literacy, electoral, gender, water, Financial literacy)

• Rights (Critical literacy, Legal literacy)

• Organizational aspects (Mass literacy, Residual literacy/ Mopping up operation)

• Differentiate above mentioned types of literacy

• Suggest measures to ensure that everyone becomes literate

so i again welcome you to today's session on types of literacy the objectives of today's sessions are that after going through this module you will be able to identify various categories of literacy list various types of literacy differentiate various types of literacy and explain the importance of each type of literacy so we saw last time three categories of literacy and we saw the types falling under all those three types of literacy now we'll further see what we are going to discuss in today's session through the chart as i mentioned earlier that we have already covered three categories falling under content learners and purpose now we'll see three categories in today's session categories falling under this are based on social concerns based on the rights and organizational aspects the two categories ah based on uh digitalization and other types of literacies will see in the next session so in today's session we will discuss the three categories of literacy and the types of literacy following under these three categories we will see that one after each and we will explain them literacy categories on the basis of social concern we are seeing health literacy health is a very important thing which has been given lot of importance by many people now we'll see the definition of health literacy given by root man according to ritman health literacy is the degree to which people are able to access understand a prize and communicate information to engage with the demands of different health context in order to promote and maintain good health across the life course this is a definition given by a root man in 2006. so in this image we are seeing the foot of health literacy that how people are getting access for health so in health literacy we can see that it is very much important for the daily lives of people it is an emerging concept that requires skills in health and literacy it builds on the idea that both health and literacy are critical resources for everyday living health literacy will empower human beings to control health as individuals families and communities the scope of health literacy can be at tree levels functional health literacy conceptual health literacy and health literacy as empowerment under functional health literacy i would like to see that once people are aware about the importance of health they would know the importance of consent form and how to get access for health facilities so in conceptual health literacy once person becomes aware about the importance of health the person will remain away from health risks like drugs and such things health literacy as an important in this the people once they become aware about health they will ensure that political parties will also listen to their demands and provide them access to promote health for them now we'll see that the skills and competency to seek comprehend and use healthy information to make informed choices reduce health risk and increase quality of life for that these persons who are aware about health literacy can work hard and see to it that they will use their skills to promote their own health as well as their communities health you can see in this image that the woman is even counseling service by the community people health literacy as empowerment as informed consumers a person can acquire the ability to promote health prevent disease and act collectively to improve the health through political system by exercising voting rights advocacy or by engaging in social movements now we'll see the importance of health literacy due to low health literacy status mortality and morbidity rates are very high this is not so with developed countries their mortality and morbidity rates have come down because people are aware about the health and the health literacy is very high in those countries poor health outcomes the same thing lies here as well that once people are not aware about their health the number of diseases and people suffering from that increases increase the rate of chronic diseases the communicable diseases in india are more as compared to other developed countries because in india still now we could not have control on tb even polio to some extent so this is not the problem with developed countries but this is the problem uh in india because chronic diseases are there so once one person becomes aware about the importance of health there would be no such kind of chronic diseases person who is aware about health will also know the importance of cost for health you know that the families in which the person is suffering from chronic disease they have to spend a lot on health and this would not happen if person is aware about health so health information demand should be there people should demand for health and health facilities and access for it there should be equity there should not be any discrimination based on cars class and crete you know the researchers have always mentioned that the women in kerala are more aware about their health than any other states of india kerala women they go to doctors whenever they fall sick they don't wait for their family members or somebody else to take them to the hospital so this happens because there is health literacy now we will see another type of literacy is electoral literacy electoral literacy describes the importance of voting rights and need for enrolling them as voters and casting vote properly through electoral literacy the voters are made aware that the persons about 18 years are eligible to vote voters are made aware that each voter has to ensure that his or her name is enrolled in the list of voters so electoral literacy is very much important for exercising our rights from 2013 onwards national literacy mission authority along with election commission of india started creating awareness on rights to vote through electoral literacy you can see in this image that the women are also taking advantage of such facilities the aim of creating an awareness on the right to vote was to sensitize adult learners to inform how to use electronic voting machine through systematic voters education and electoral participation program introduced by election commission of india that sweep uh program was very famous and people were made aware about using this machine even though the constitution of india has given equal rights to men and women we find that there is gender discrimination even in the field of literacy hence there is importance of gender literacy the census data shows that illiteracy is more among women than men that's why now we have saksha bharat program which is especially there to cater to women so sex discrimination exists in india from medieval period nobody has to explain more on this because everybody knows that in india people give importance for having a son in the family so that exists in india the male female differential in literacy in india is 28.59 in 2001 and 16.25 in 2011. so this was the gap day by day it is reducing but still there is gap one has to be aware about this fact we'll see gender literacy why it is important uh to give importance for this that we have to see there are various reasons why there is low female literacy in india first is that there is prejudice against female education and mobility that women are not encouraged to attend schools or to learn they are given lot of household choice to do the work in the house of studying the housework gets more important than their studies then a mobility problem is also there if the schools are very far off they are not send there because there is no travel mode to go there then there is a tradition of early marriage at least in rajasthan still now we find that there is still there is a tradition of early marriage practice of keeping women confined to household is well known and it is still prevalent in many parts of india and widespread poverty actually that is also one of the major reasons of keeping girls and women without education the importance of women's literacy was reiterated by national policy of on education many times india's present literacy program saksha bharat focuses on women's literacy now we'll see another type of literacy that is water literacy which is also based on the category of social concerns it is related to improving people's awareness on water conservation like how to preserve water and how to use potable water economically those things are taught in this water literacy it ensures that effective use of water for household agriculture and industrial purposes will be there so this is what is taught to water literacy you can see that in the image the lady is explaining the importance of water literacy water literacy improves learner skills in using available water by using techniques of water harvesting borewell recharging and education there are some ngos who teach even women how to use the hand pumps and how to repair them such things are going on under this water literacy program now we'll see important type of literacy that is financial literacy financial literacy refers to the knowledge and understanding of financial concepts thereby resulting in the ability to make informed confident and effective decisions regarding money money matters a lot and this is taught to this financial literacy finance or money plays an important role in the lives of human beings everybody says that money speaks and nothing else so finance is really important and those who are handling money they know how important it is so lack of finance is the major reason for various social problems like depression separation divorce and even suicide that's why people say that money matters and money speaks so through financial literacy we teach people how to manage their money worthington has given the definition of financial literacy it is stated that financial literacy is an understanding of economics and how economic conditions and circumstances affect household decisions the following issues are explained while explaining financial literacy by dating and planning household income and expenditure planning small savings the importance of these things are taught through financial literacy budgeting like how much income do you have and how do you want to plan to spend it then how much expenditure you have in future that you have to think and small savings the importance of saving a day saving and a month these things are taught to financial literacy so in financial literacy we have other things which includes available expenses reduction like on what items you can avoid what are your priorities based on that you should spend your money these things are taught to neolithics then smart spending like buying things on bulk then the importance of saving schemes of the banks like saving scheme fixed deposit and types and modes of accounts it also has bank accounts operation like how to handle uh the bank accounts enhancing savings use of savings for productive purposes and not just spending for the sake of spending then investment of savings and credit these things are covered under financial literacy importance of credit formal financial institutions are also major things which comes under financial literacy because many new leaders they tend to ah take loan from local people like saukarts and those who are not having any kind of formal standing in the society from them they take loan and they come in problem so the importance of taking loans from formal financial institution is taught to this financial literacy sources of loan for below poverty line schedule cash schedule drive families types of loans available for them and repayment methods types of insurance schemes institutions providing insurance facilities these things are also covered under financial literacy type that literacy based on the knowledge of citizens rights critical literacy is also called as emancipatory literacy or transformational literacy paolo fred has written a lot of material on this critical literacy so critical literacy or radical literacy enables individuals to become critical of what they see what they hear what they get and what they are asked to give so in a way they become critical about the situation around them social situation political economic situation so in critical literacy people become aware about the situation around them critical literacy aids people to organize political action for transforming the world around them in this image you can see that people have gathered together and they are discussing about how to come out of their deprived situation so paolo flair catches the relationship between reading and doing and between literacy work and empowering work thus reading world always precede reading the word means first you should have knowledge of the word then only you can think about changing the world around you so this was the theme which was given by paulo freyr now we'll see a legal literacy the importance of legal literacy is very much there for those who are deprived of getting legal rights in which usually you find marginalized section of people are who do not get opportunity to access legal facilities so for them legal literacy is very important the first step towards legal literacy is the knowledge of law which can transform people's lives one law can even change the lives of people because that gives them right and empower them so legal literacy describes certain legal rights and emancipate people especially women and girls from their injustices through large group discussions learners are informed as to how to ascertain and also seek help of legal experts to address the identified legal problems there are some ngos who work very hard to ensure that poor people will get their legal rights insured majlis is there there's so many chaitanya is there in puna they have their groups who help poor people to fight for the legal rights now we'll see another category of literacy that is based on organizational aspects in which we have mass literacy actually it is said that india realized the importance of mass literacy for economic development of late it should have done a lot of work beforehand so that many people would have got advantage of literacy and they would have been economically independent mass approach to illiteracy emerge from the voluntary non-government experience of people science movement and kerala shastra sahih parishad there are a lot of work in kerala so based on their experience india learnt a lot and the inaugural experiment is very much famous we'll learn about it in coming slides mass literacy started from 1988 onwards and it was assumed that the expansion of formal education would ensure mass literacy that there should be primary education that was the contention of many academicians they said if formal education or primary education would reach out to people there would be no need of such literacy programs but in 1988 national literacy mission was the first step towards making a hundred million literate and inoculum experiments which i mentioned earlier spear headed by kerala shastra of making the whole district literate was a role model for the whole nation because the whole district was made literate and that was the example which was followed by national literacy mission through its programs so national literacy missions program ran through three phases there is total literacy campaign post literacy and continuing education program will see them one after each we will see total literacy campaign the major strategy was based on the ernakulam experiment as i mentioned earlier wherein it was to be area based participative and time board area base means it would be a district which would be the unit of operation and participative means many people the whole actually the whole district is supposed to work hard to ensure that people will become literate and it was time bound means the learner was supposed to learn in 200 hours from volunteers and become literate other features of total literacy campaign were that it was cost effective and outcome oriented approach it was cost effective because the teachers who were teaching literacy to illiterates were volunteers and voluntarism was the major factor in this total literacy campaign it was outcome oriented meaning that many people became literate and women were the major chunk who got benefited from this total literacy campaign total literacy campaign has the features like it is the district would be the unit of operation of total literacy campaign and duration would be 200 hours wherein adult learners are taught by volunteers and primers would be provided by government at that time the the primers means the books for literacy were provided by government through state literacy mission because they were the one who were producing those primers and the adult education classes were held at panchayats place volunteers house or in the houses of adult learners 60 percent of the learners were female so that was the major thing of this total literacy campaign then we see there is a post literacy campaign as i mentioned earlier that post literacy program it was ensured that learners will not relapse into illiteracy and that's why these post literacy program classes were held to enhance adult learning the adele learners were encouraged to form collective relationship to enhance individual empowerment strengthen community development and the post literacy primers were also provided by government of india different countries organize continuing education programs in different names such as post literacy adult education non-formal education etc in india we had this post literacy program which was supposed to be a year's program wherein the learners would be taught by the instructor that that's the prayer would be teaching literacy to new literacy to see to it that they will not again relapse into illiteracy and their ah reading and writing habit will be continued throughout so for that this post literacy program was there as i mentioned earlier national literacy mission program had ah three programs total literacy campaign post literacy program and continuing education so in continuing education program at the national level national literacy mission supported learning needs of adult learners and neolithics and at the state level the state resource center provided teaching pedagogic support to adult education programs means the material required for ensuring that learners will not relapse into illiteracy was provided by src but funded by central government of india many books for neoliterates were published in those days by state literacy mission in various states now once the total literacy campaign happens still you find that there are some learners who have not become literate so in this residual literacy or mopping up operation these learners were to be catered by this mopping of operation so in mopping up operation it was supposed that it should be done immediately after the implementation of total literacy campaign the people who are enrolled in continuing education centers where the beneficiaries of this mopping up operation and the people who could not become literate during the total literacy campaign phase were also covered in this residual literacy or mopping up operation denzel santana has written a lot on this particular phase of literacy campaign so through residial literacy through mopping up operation the residual illiterates were given a chance to enter the world of literate's those learners were met to complete the prescribed levels of literacy as but national literacy mission norms they were made to go through the bridge primers and that's how they could complete their literacy work so we saw three categories of literacy literacy based on social concerns literacy based on the rights of people and literacy on the basis of its organizational aspect so under social concern we saw health literacy electoral literacy gender literacy water literacy and financial literacy under rights literacy we saw critical literacy legal literacy and under organizational aspects we saw mass literacy and residual or mopping up operation thank you

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