Evolution of Lifelong Learning.

•-Adult Education in India: National And International Perspectives.
Evolution of Lifelong Learning.

• Learning Objectives :-

At the end of this Reading notes , the learner will be able to......

1.Infer why Lifelong Learning (LLL) has emerged as the main (central) organizational principle of contemporary and all future education system.

2.Explain how the market and contemporary globalization has influenced the growth of LLL in Europe and some other developed countries.

3.Identify the processes, events and ideas that led to institutionalization of LLL as an academic discipline and organizational principle in education.

4.Analyse various issues related to LLL in terms of its limitations and strengths.

This lecture is about evolution of lifelong learning its intellectual genesis particularly in the context of european history and then certain manifest issues within lifelong learning so as to determine its present status it dwells upon intellectual that is conceptual and socio-economic genesis of lifelong learning in our time particularly in the context of two three factors the first factor is that with the ushering in of a high intensity globalized market characterized by knowledge economic information society we have the present lifelong learning as a discipline second this unit reflects on the european history of lifelong learning and its evolution in the larger context of european economy the third aspect of this unit or this lecture is we analyze the ongoing issues in global life long learning and summarize it in terms of its current disciplinary status our historical narrative is based on two perspectives which may be placed at two opposite ends of a continuum these two perspectives are first where adult education and lifelong learning are considered as human rights and seen as an educational means for transforming and empowering individuals communities and societies the second perspective is where adult education and lifelong learning are seen primarily as a means for skills training for satisfying the needs of the global market economy now the problem is that the market economy perspective of adult education of lifelong learning is the dominant perspective today it has been reduced to a one dimensional field of education and training instead of this growing as a multi-dimensional and holistic discipline now what is the intellectual or conceptual and socio-economic factors leading to the genesis of lifelong learning even in 2017 this year the term lifelong learning unlike the european lifelong learning is struggling to make its defined place in the indian higher education system traditional terms such as adult and continuing education and vocational education are considered commonly as disciplinary fields in the indian academy according to one important scholar rasna baras the present paradigm shift in focus from adult education to lifelong learning is essentially european in its origin which are manifestly visible in the oecd and the eu policy that is european union policy documents where adult learning is considered as vitally important to the european social model and to the standing of a strong europe in a globally competitive world lifelong learning or lifelong education is hardly 50 years old if we take into account as the unesco's publication of the edgar for report of 1972 which is titled as learning to be the world of education today and tomorrow this document of unesco can be taken as an official announcement of lifelong learning intent the furrow report highlighted the institutional relevance of lifelong learning to the center stage by acquiring two new terms one is lifelong education and the other one is life long learning society the follow repair consider lifelong education as a transformative and communicatory force not only socially but also educationally some observers have held the forward report 1972 as a copper nikken revolution in education in europe in the context of lifelong education as emphasized in the unesco's furrow report 1972 and life long learning which was emphasized in unesco de l's report of 1996 we find at least two influential contesting ideological terrains and these are the first one considers lifelong learning education in the perspective of the classical liberalist tradition and the second one is the new liberalist tradition the former classical liberal tradition stood for the individually empowering and socially transformative power of learning along with pursuit of personal well-being happiness and other goals the later emphasize the freedom of the independent atomized individual to learn and grow in a completely unrestricted manner there was complete freedom in this perspective in this context of opposing pools or ideological pulls poorer and less powerful organizations such as the unesco and to some extent the european council have worked towards the former whereas the rich and powerful trans national agencies such as the world bank and the oecd and the european union have worked in the interest of the latter that is the new liberal perspective one interesting outcome of these two ideological pulls is that the rich western countries including the us japan australia etc have in principle recognize lifelong learning as central to the organization of their higher education system however in poorer and developing countries of africa latin america and asia including india lifelong learning both as a policy discourse and as an academic discipline is largely missing except for its token recognition in the field of skills development which again is lingering outside the indian university system on the whole the global status of contemporary life long learning has come to be identified with the functional interests of the global western market economy this has led to a one dimensional interpretation of lifelong learning inhibiting its multi-dimensional growth and potential as an organizing principle of all forms of education based on inclusive emancipatory humanistic and democratic values friends having discussed this theoretical background or the political economy background we can move to the historical factors leading to the evolution of life long learning in europe historically lifelong learning or simply learning has been in existence since ages it is as old as this civilization and humanity in fact as old as the human beings are there in on this planet lifelong learning as a social practice was there before any structured systematic education evolved and became institutionalized as social and economic functions of the society became increasingly complex and huge in terms of organizational need more specialized and professional functions became the concurrent need of each historical stage of society which led to slow eclipsing of life long learning by superior accidency of formally organized and highly structured education system which we find today in practice highly structured and standardized forms of learning and education particularly present universal schooling cutting to the masses however is only of modern origin which can be dated back to 17 and 18th century industrial revolution in the western countries particularly europe or uk the united kingdom the structured standardized and specialized education system that emerged to serve the skilled workforce of the industrial society in the western europe came to be known as modernist education the modernist european model of education was characterized as textbook based decontextualized abstract knowledge based which was transmitted by expert authoritative teachers or expert curriculum writers highly standardized and graded evolution system and assessment system was in fashion which was based on pure instrumental rationality and positive based science this form of education primarily cater to the urban middle class aspirations for jobs offered by the industrial society as opposed to the patent workers landless workers of the aggregating society now parallel to this in india the british also introduced this modernist education later in india during the 18th and 19th century they did it so by herodly that means in a rushed manner they replaced the old traditional indigenous forms of learning and education which cater to the needs of the rural agregarian and pastoral economy practiced in our country since ages so we can see the parallel between india and we had a very good robust indigenous education system although not modern in the sense in the present contemporary european sense but it was highly useful to the aggregate society we had coming back we have seen that it was unesco's for a report of 1972 which popularized lifelong learning as a new sub discipline of adult education the call and the need of for lifelong learning can be seen as a culmination of political events during the 1960s when several students unrest and demonstrations in europe led to new concerns and concepts in education such as such as permanent education given by council of europe another concept given as learning to be given by unesco or recurrent education concept given by oecd all these various concepts coined by international institutions such as council of europe and unesco politically expressed a shift towards a more humanistic right based and holistic view of education the concept of permanent education was first introduced by the council of europe in 1966 which was seen as a fundamentally new and comprehensive concept an overall education pattern capable of meeting the rapidly increasing and ever more diversified educational needs of every individual young and adult in the new european society which has emerged in the 28th and 21st century at the european level the first conference of ministers of education held in 1971 forced the alliance of education with the european common market however european and american policy interest in life long learning faded during the 1980s which precipitated at the unesco crisis in 1984 after both the us and the uk that is england withdrew from unesco's membership until 1993 the european policy environment did not care much for lifelong learning and lifelong education as it was considered as very utopian and idealistic until here friends we can see that lifelong education remained focused on routine work centered and employment related vocational and lifelong training programs but as global competition and structural adjustment policy of the world bank led to economic restructuring towards knowledge base industries gained huge momentum in early 1990s where lifelong learning gained renewed importance to cater to the needs of the new economy new technology and international competition we saw a close link between qualification and employment private corporation started seeing profit in this wake that is return in education or in investment in education as human capital where knowledge technologists started emphasizing better employability and competitions for their workforce during the 1990s the emphasis on learning shifted from personally fulfilling growth to more individualized and atomized human resource development institutions imparting education and training were also expected to focus on employability and move away from reliance on the welfare state so subsidy in education and other social sectors were cut supposed to be cut down later the unesco set up a new academic organization called the institute for lifelong learning in short it can be called as u i l and it was set up in 2006 to promote and strengthen the process of recognition validation and accreditation standards for lifelong learning and adult education then more recently another document you document european union document called european union 2020 that is 2020 which talks about the european strategy for smart sustainable and inclusive growth has planned an integrated program for lifelong learning which is called as erasmus for all for the period 2014 to 2020. the history of adult education and lifelong learning in europe varies greatly by region and country it is not uniform in all or same in this all countries it borrows positive elements from enlightenment philosophy of equity and initial fulfillment yet it moves towards more neoliberal values like complete individual autonomy and freedom and choice recognition and importance of adult learning and its present form known as lifelong learning has increased enormously since the mid 1990s but the tension between the broad and the narrow functionalist views has also increased in this tension we find that slowly lifelong learning in europe is being institutionalized as a concrete discipline as the central guiding principle discipline for the entire higher education but in india we find it missing since the early 1970s global changes started pushing adult education towards new paradigms like lifelong learning and global childrenship education or simply called as global education to meet the needs of constantly changing skilled workforce and globally oriented citizens respectively so friends let us see this intellectual genesis of lifelong learning according to different purposes it served the european society the first is that democratic aspirations among people have led to massification of higher education there is too much of rush of students for higher education which the nation states cannot meet the financial burden or investment it requires under democratic pressure to expand enrollment and access to education globalization particularly your structural adjustment policy has put pressure to cut operative cost of education for bringing fiscal stability through financial austerity policy reforms and adoption of and introduction of new learning systems and strategies pedagogies online delivery systems based on web and internet technologies and creation of virtual universities through massive open and online courses moocs in short it is called which we are part of it right now where private sectors are encouraged to play a major role in fact virtual universities based on web online courses privatization of schooling and technical institutions with focus on lifelong learning and global citizenship education are considered to be the central and key organizing principles for all forms and all levels of education and learning as said earlier the intellectual genesis of lifelong learning has been linked to the needs of knowledge economy and information society these two specific factors have pushed in for new policy provisions for continuously upgrading training and knowledge transmission in our education system in this context lifelong learning in europe has received great political attention in policy terms which seeks its institutionalization as a new sub discipline of adult education called lifelong learning thus lifelong learning has pushed for profound changes in the curriculum content pedagogy including androgyny and hitachi and mode of learning based on individual needs aspirations and styles yet as an independent discipline both adult education and lifelong learning remain at a very low position in terms of financial that is budgetary provisions across most european and approaching countries as a holistic discipline of study lifelong learning remains anchored in the market driven demands it is not driven by social and cultural values of the society for a humanistic upbringing at the moment the landscape of adult education and lifelong learning has mixed and incoherent principles policies and practices relocating either adult education within life long learning or the vice versa requires a shared integrated and holistic philosophy of the purposes and benefits of adult learning although european countries have a current policy in the third world countries or the poorer countries like asia and africa we find it very much at its infancy that is at its child stage now with this kind of origin or development of lifelong learning in terms of its institutionalization there are issues in life long learning and try to analyze its present disciplinary status lifelong learning friends is characterized by poorly violent rhetoric promising ietropian learning society where an individual learner in principle could learn everything and anything he or she desires in fact as a policy discourse lifelong learning is currently the best selling educational dream however there are many unresolved and conflicting issues in lifelong learning for example lifelong learning is supposed to contribute to the creation of learning organizations and learning societies as visualized by the unesco's vision of learning to be that is as exemplified in furrow report of nineteen seventy two however in practice all lifelong learning systems and learning organizations serve mainly utilitarian and functional demands of constantly changing market and technologies albeit on a very limited scale with little priority in terms of financial budgetary allocation not only europe but the entire world the financial burden on education also provides european countries to put much emphasis on lifelong learning to repeat what i have said in other words adult education and life flow learning are recognized and protected only minimally that is at the least manner in the least manner and policy concerns for them in terms of legislation varies from country to country so far european union efforts for lifelong learning have done little to alter its formal standing and the public resources allocated for it now so having discussed or having understood little bit the background of european for much more deeper knowledge you must consult other learning materials or reading materials aspect of the institutionalization of life learning and its present status here i give you two quotes by two eminent people the first quote is i read it the history of adult learning and education is a hit and miss story starting off with strong rhetoric promises and expectations and concluding in limited successes and even neglect and disappointment in too many cases this is from manju ahmad from bangladesh there is another court which i would like to produce before you the court is like this many national governments education and social policies have not prioritized adult learning and education as has been expected and hoped for rather in other sense they have not allocated the necessary finance resources this is a quote from our unesco's uil study of 2009. friends we can see that from these two courts there is very sad and utterly neglected state of adult education and lifelong learning in most part of the world barring the few rich western countries including the u.s japan and australia until now however there has been no separate adult education and lifelong learning policy within higher education system of most countries adult education and lifelong learning constitute a small and the least prioritized fragment of the general education policies of various national governments including india adult education policies are incoherent and fragmented more like a patchwork of majors responding to specific issues than a framework of linked principles and programs this is also directly from a quote from the unesco uil study friends only a few countries in europe including the u.s japan and australia have a coherent less ideological more pragmatic and independent adult education and life long learning policies in poorer and developing countries adult education and lifelong learning they have been only slowly and partially incorporated into their general educational policy framework more significantly both adult education and lifelong learning have not been matched by necessary political and financial commitment in poorer and developing countries like india friends this is the condition of adult education and lifelong learning in terms of its evolution in terms of its evolution it has been largely linked to the evolving market in the europe and in the world particularly in the contemporary 21st century globalization has led to define the terms and conditions the curriculum the mode modus operandi of lifelong learning you

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