Conceptual Understanding of Lifelong Learning.

•- Adult Education in India: National and International perspectives.
Conceptual Understanding of Lifelong Learning.

• Learning Objectives :-

• After Reading this study notes , you would be able to .......

• Explain the meaning and concept of Lifelong Learning (LLL) in its larger manifestations and dimensions.

About the indian policy on lifelong learning in the present days so friends i am going to move immediately to the first lecture or the first unit which is called lifelong learning or conceptual understanding now these are the definitions meaning and scope which i am going to discuss here lifelong learning is a broad its quite void generic term which is not easy to define in simple clear and specific terms yet we will understand its meaning through some select definitions it can be defined as a new discipline of adult education which promotes lifelong life voluntary self-motivated pursuit of knowledge either for personal gains or professional reasons it is supposed to enhance social inclusion active citizenship personal development competitiveness and employability so these are basically also the features of lifelong learning which are inherent the in this definition the european lifelong learning initiative and american council of education they provide us a combined definition or a slightly more coherent and a shorter workable definition which reads like this lifelong learning is the development of human potential through a continuously supportive process which stimulates and empowers individuals to acquire all the knowledge values skills and understanding they will require through their lifetimes and to apply them in confidence in creativity and enjoyment in all roles all circumstances and environments now friends these two definitions i have given above or told you we can decipher three regions of lll rather four that every individual has immense cement potential which are achievable and worth pursuing for a supportive mechanism and learning climate should be made available to facilitate desired learning and achieve desired technology knowledge values skills and aptitudes necessary for a successful life that learning can occur in many different ways and places one is your formal another is your non-formal third one is your informal and the fourth one you can say is your web based or online based on self-help guides modules and new pedagogies such as androgy and hitagogi this will be explained later now fourth one is that element the fourth element of lifelong learning is it needs to create an integrated and holistic support system for learning taking into account individual differences and needs in order to help the individual learner to learn under self direction so it is under your self guidance self learning perspectives meta cognitions which you have where you have to learn on your own now apart from the western perspectives we have a very rich tradition in india which is summarized in mahatma gandhi's idea of naitali which is also in english can be translated as basic education gandhi propounded a spiritual and vocational lifelong principle which considered that knowledge and work are not separable his naita lim has several layers of meaning now naithalim embodies an ideal society which he called as swaras comprising of small self-sufficient communities village republics where citizens are trained to be industrious self-respecting generous and morally strong individuals the beauty of gandhian thought on self-life long learning is gandhi made craft based education as the center of his pedagogy to bring about a radical restructuring of the sociology of knowledge in india now coming back friends in general the scope of lifelong learning encompasses three settings of learning and education as i have discussed earlier also at least mentioned it these three settings are formal learning non-formal learning and informal learning along with new learning modes such as online web-based self-directed learning which are based on problem solving learning methods and pedagogies pedagogies such as androgyny and hietagogy now friends we need to go beyond in the context of 21st century we need to go beyond traditional decontextual knowledge and texts instruction based education systems what you see or in your schools or you have been studying until now is basically a traditional deconstructurized knowledge instruction based knowledge system whereas lifelong learning adopts a lifelong and life void approach here contemporary lifelong learning appears to come closer to the gandhian scheme of basic education in terms of temporality and spatial components the scope of lll can be seen as having two major dimensions namely lifelong learning dimension which suggests that individual learners can learn throughout their lifetime and be life void learning dimension which emphasizes that it can occur in all kinds of formal non formal informal settings and across all sectors of professional and personal growth the life long dimension of lifelong learning simply suggests that an individual's desire in learning should be based on his or her personal choice about the relevance and stage of life span for a particular learning lifelong learning recognizes that an individual should be able to upgrade her knowledge and skills throughout her life lifelong learning in principle recognizes that if the knowledge and skills held by an individual become obsolete outdated at any stage of her temporal life she must have the opportunity to upgrade her skills and knowledge with a provision for continuous that is vertical and learning based on her prior base of knowledge or stock of knowledge you can say here is a diagram given on the screen if you can see which explains ah in analogical way what constitutes life void and lifelong ah attribute of lifelong learning and then the three dimensions which is called formal non-formal and informal friends life long learning also recognizes horizontal expansion and provisions for training and learning for life void vocational jobs and professional skills in a wide range of settings which is classroom workplace web-based all these are for continuous upgradation of skills having provision for life with learning for continuous professional upgradation can be challenging not only for the individual learner but also for the policy makers and implementing authorities because they need to employ wide range of context methods and settings for the learnings here you can see lifelong learning systems require establishment of a complex institutional arrangement which is quite different from the traditional learning which provides for quality education and training or learning cutting across formal non formal informal settings in terms of learning processes methodologies content curriculum and foundational principles friends here is another table on the screen if you can see a table number one which shows the difference between traditional learning and the lifelong learning on the left column you have various emphasis or the processes like mode content or topics trainers problems methods solutions role of the student and the teacher how is the assessment taken structure of the curriculum and how traditional learning and lifelong learning they occur they are explained in the second and the third column ah then another table also explains ah gives you an example of where exactly all these three forms of education that is formal education or learning non-formal education or learning or informal learning and education takes place on various sites which are visible and this explains or this will give you a clarity about what exactly ah lifelong learning means to you now differences between formal and non-formal and informal learning largely appear in terms of there it is intent and design where these three categories analytical categories of education or learning that is formal non-formal and informal learning are distinguished between each other so friends on a continuum if you see formal learning continuum is a straight line and that is one end and the another end then you can see one on the one end is your formal learning another end is your informal learning in between in the center you can say the non formal learning so you can understand these are not bipolar opposites they are integrated and somehow their methods and processes overlap yet you can see that formal learning is highly organized and specialized whereas informal learning is the least organized and specialized with non-formal learning placed in between the two formal learning takes place in schools colleges universities and institutions where at the completion of a course learning is certified by award of degrees that is mbbs or psd ba amas things like that and diplomas non-formal learning is also structured but it is not very comprehensive rather it is very short duration intended program like radio or television program for farmers on the use of pesticides in farming which takes place in settings outside educational institutions now the third category is informal learning which occurs almost everywhere as a by-product of an interactional activity for example a carpenter's son learning carpentry from his father's while helping him in his family vocation now it is generally non structured without disciplinary emphasis on learning yet much of our learning occurs from or comes from informal settings with acquisition and formation of our primary knowledge skills and attitudes available as basic foundation for all our later stage learning right from our childhoods we learn so many things now the table given on the screen you can see explains the above distinction through an analytical frame of life length ah in terms of literacy education and you can see some of these points which are visible on the screen and you can see what exactly they mean imply in terms of actual training in literacy classes ah moving ah further friends now after having discussed the meaning and the scope of lifelong learning ah let me summarize you the characteristics of life learning as a new concept in education and training now first is lifelong learning cuts across formal non formal informal learning settings that is it adopts an eclectic selective best approaches in choosing learning styles and methods found among all the three settings of learning that is formal non formal and informal second is lifelong learning is based on self motivated and self directed you got to be motivated and self directed in terms of your learning it offers you choice and need based learning for professional development and self growth with individuals taking full responsibility for their own learning learners develop metacognition of their own learning styles and attitudes which allows them to concentrate on the best possible ways for learning learners also develop an understanding of their limitations while participating in adult learning with a strong desire to overcome those limitations or shortcomings if there are at all any now the third point is characteristic of lifelong learning is that it believes in self-financed education and learning friends this is one crux or solid explanation of why there is an emergence of a new sub discipline within adult education of adult education rather the name is being changed from adult education to lifelong learning and in that sense it is basically because the owners or the responsibility of learning is on the individual both in terms of self financing and then self learning this is because we have to cut the public expenditure on provisions for mass education the state cannot really give too much society on education it expects that learners not only choose their own learning needs but also they are willing to invest in their time in their money and in their efforts on a continuous basis this is the crux of lifelong learning and thereby you can build or you can understand the theoretical or the philosophical underpinnings of lifelong learning yes friends the fourth characteristic of lifelong learning it requires universal access and participation in continuous learning and professional development popular demand for education which has led to massification of education at all levels has also led to lifelong learning to promote universal access to all for further education and training that is also for continuous development of skills and knowledge which is available to almost everybody and it should be able to that is the principle now these principles of universal access and participation in lifelong learning are guided by the jacks dealers report which is on official unesco report of 1996 which propounded four pillars of learning society as a masonry and global goal of lifelong learning now these are the jack dela's four principles of learning four principles are they learning to do learning to be learning to know and learning to live together with others now these are the four features based on avoid comprehensive understanding of global society and individual attitudes towards our fellow citizens whether nationally or globally friends you can see that the present world is full of social and economic contradictions produced by global capitalism assisted by fast changing technologies and services our personal social professional and political life is also full of many uncertainties and insecurities created by economics and politics of increasing global inequality for example according to an oxfam international report title and economy for the 99 percent published this year 2017 only eight men own almost equal wealth as is possessed by 3.6 billion people of the world who constitute 50 percent of the humanity in india reaches 1 percent indians own 58 percent of the country's wealth in other ways 57 billion years in india have the same amount of wealth as the bottom 70 percent of the population the report oxfam report also describes the gap between the rich and the poor which is far greater than we can imagine the report also highlights how corporate business and super rich are nourishing the inequality crisis by evading taxes cutting down wages and jobs and how they use their powers to influence not only international economics and trade but also national and global politics you may be wondering why i explained or provided you this information on equality global inequality or national inequality in terms of economic wealth this is because the political economy of wealth and inequality also determines policy provisions in terms of finances of various governments national governments life long learning strives to address the ever mentioned problems of uncertainties and insecurities arising from the global inequalities by providing learning orientations towards the earlier discussed unesco's four pillars of a learning society lifelong learning is in general supposed to foster creativity initiative responsiveness and skills of adaptability among key learners to cope up with the challenges of the contemporary post-foldest industrial society citizens of the contemporary world need to learn and enhance their skills to manage uncertainties negotiate conflicts and communicate across and within cultures of cultures families and communities every day you find violence and we need to understand lifelong learning comes into understanding these uncertainties and limitations within societies and within policy provisions friends we can now move to the features of an effective life long learning system an important great scholar called alvin toffler he writes that the illiterates of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write but those who cannot learn and learn and relearn so that is the focus of his quote that is we must be able to learn unlearn and relearn what toffler suggests is that individuals continuously need to revise and upgrade their skills knowledge and information including their attitudes towards learning an effective lifelong learning system and a life learning society should be able to provide individual learners opportunities and resources for continuous upgradation for their skills and knowledge to engage them in meaningful activities debates and discussions dialectical and dialogical encounters with their work and experimentations and develop a shared understanding within the community now what exactly in concrete terms or specific terms are the features of an effective lifelong learning system the first one is that learners should have all the freedom and initiative to set their goals learning styles and pace of learning not the system educational system or the lifelong learning system so that means basically you or the learners will be having all the freedom to set their goals style space of learning as well as the choice of learning the second point about effective learning system is that the curriculum content language vocabulary tools methodology and practices introduced while lifelong learning system should primarily come from the workplace experiences from outside so as to keep them natural and contextualized embedded and relevant the third effective system should be able to focus on the economic and practical feasibility of a module based learning model based learning meaning the breakdown units or chapters which you see in the books to suit students or learners strategic modus operandi assessment and fulfillment of commitments the learning tools must be relevant and related to the problem at hand they should not create unnecessary complexities and breakdowns learners should be provided space and mechanism to be able to learn not only from the workplace environments alone but should also be able to share knowledge with others who have special expertise in the field another feature of an effective lifelong learning system is that learners should be provided ample information and tools which help them in cross domain search that is they should be able to make further improvements to the given solutions another feature of an effective lifelong system is that it should be able to promote two major kinds of reflections the first one is at the preliminary level that learners should be able to reflect on the problem and possible solutions second at the post modern level they should be able to see whether the patterns and problems are repetitive in nature and how they can be eliminated through restructuring work progress all learning systems should be able to provide learners multiple interactive situations and opportunities with experts and co-learners along with a workplace experience another feature of an effective system is that it should not only be able to support individual enterprises in learning but develop cooperative partnership the word key here is key word here is cooperative partnership with co-learners and other lifelong learning groups working concurrently elsewhere keeping in view the larger aim which lifelong learning system should be able to produce collective knowledge the aim is to produce collective knowledge as well as improve upon individuals knowledge and skills another feature of an effective lifelong learning system is that it should be open and flexible enough to transcend the boundaries of any closed system like schools or colleges as we have traditionally known making this mechanism such as end user modifiability and end user programming a necessity rather than a luxury if possible all lifelong learning systems should be able to support their learners and end users to become code developers that means they are also the contributors in the design of the lifelong learning systems all lifelong learning systems should be collaborative this is another feature of an effective life learning system they should be able to work and partner with similar institutions and industrial organizations to enhance their results and share resources because in isolation all learning enterprises are incomplete as knowledge and technologies are changing very fast in 21st century now after having discussed these meanings scopes effective live learning systems what should be the strategy of lifelong learning any lifelong learning system needs to adopt certain strategies for its successful implementation being able to give the best to the learners now an effective learning system must adopt a set of balanced systematic coherent and comprehensive strategies some of these select strategies are like it should be able to address all forms of learning it should not only focus on formal programs of study to cater to professional development skills development but also its own disciplinary development like contribution to social and economic empowerment the second strategy should be that it must develop partnership with the public and private organizations including voluntary organizations that can be useful provide useful education service another strategy should be that it should be able to develop a research data about the nature of demand for learning in a knowledge base society labour market like for example labor market needs for basic skills emerging services sector information and communication technologies etcetera another strategy for a viable a good learning lifelong learning system is should be that it must recognize or strategize an optimum resource mobilization inviting public and private investments in learning including self financing and other self learning schemes another strategy should be to promote a culture of learning this is again very important where the owners of learning is on the students not on the teachers or on the institutions but on the learner so all ll systems should be able to promote our culture of learning which values learning and its instrumental utilitarian value it should promote status and incentives for knowledge entrepreneurs and seekers who are highly resalient achievers now in order to achieve excellence all ll systems must develop strategies of strict quality control quality control is now a fashionable word in almost every sphere of production and market so we got to have this in our lifelong learning also in terms of delivery of services with appropriate indicators and milestones to monitor their own progress and commitments friends in a lifelong learning context strategies are also needed to rethink about access and equity priorities in lifelong learning by exploring opportunities available to individuals across their life cycle and in different settings where learning occurs lifelong learning should address learning and training needs of not only the workforce aspiring for the rich organized sector but also for the needs of the vast majority of workers and patients belonging to the unorganized informal sector of the national economy having discussed this we must friends also see or look into the limitations and weaknesses of lifelong learning as a concept or as an institution some of the major weaknesses of education system in india have been friends until now that there is lack of adequate finance support access and flexible bureaucratic norms and regulations inadequate infrastructure provisions and training poor curricula and weak delivery systems we must be able to see even lifelong learning systems into or through these prisms of earlier problems lifelong learning systems are no exception in india they are yet to be institutionalized properly within the higher education system however apart from the above mentioned some practical and conceptual limitations or weaknesses of life learning are something more and much more serious one limitation at the conceptual or the theoretical level is that all lifelong learning systems are not always able to visualize or foresee all the learning needs of the fast changing economy and technological systems neither they are able to adapt quickly to the new challenges they are not always meticulous in adapting to the needs of the learner or the community another limitation or weakness is that all ll systems tend to undermine their own disciplinary research and development because of their preoccupation with carrier and professional development another problem weakness is that technology is not always the harvinger of social and cultural development hence lifelong learning systems with their exclusive focus on development of professional skills tend to undermine social justice and equity issues in national skills development another problem with lifelong learning is that they romanticize lifelong learning at the cost of life void running learning it also privileges skills learning for the organized sector of the national economy at the cost of the informal and unorganized sector another problem with lifelong learning is that it generally tends to differ accusation of certain professional and technological skills until they are in demand and hence learning time and resources may not be available later to a learner alternatively learning environment later may not be always too conducive for the learner in terms of safe learning processes these are really very serious conceptual limitations of lifelong learning another limitation is that lifelong learning focuses mainly on individual needs market demands and professional skills requirement hence it is liable to provide limited and isolated pieces of knowledge and limited support in a learning essential to lifelong learning principles another limitation is that lifelong learning systems provide many contextualized embedded and experience based knowledge and skills which men put ordinary working class and learners in a fix while abstracting their gained experience and knowledge in a new and different setting another major limitation of lifelong learning is its predominant preoccupation with economic that is vocational and professional skills which is also visible from the pun intended in its power phrased term life long learning is equal to life lifelong earning which is basically means that lifelong learning has been reduced narrowly to scope of learning for earning so that is the main these are the main limitations both theoretical and the practical limitations friends now i would like to close so with conclusion in a short manner that education training and lifelong learning have become central to our contemporary knowledge society which is influenced by fast changing global technologies and information ours is an increasingly complex society with ever expanding and ever changing demands for new skills new attitudes new professionalism new values new organizational structures and principles the complexities of the contemporary world is that we are continuously able to rethink reinvent and redesign our learning systems and organizational structures for the future a lifelong learning perspective has emerged in the field of adult education which aspires to go beyond vocational training and continuing education the challenge of 21st century education is to rethink reinvent and restructure our school based and higher education based lifelong learning system in a more balanced way to accommodate the aspirations of individual empowerment as well as social and global transformations friends with this i hope or a good understanding of lifelong learning has come to your mind thank you you Up next

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